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Complement Fixation Test - Principle, Components, Procedure, Advantages, Disadvantages

Complement Fixation Test – Principle, Components, Procedure, Advantages, Disadvantages

In complement fixation test, Complement is used which is a biologically labile serum factor that causes the immune cytolysis i.e. lysis of antibody-coated cells which is found in normal serum. Our whole complement system is made up of a total of nine components from C1 to C9. And these proteins are heat-labile and may be destroyed by heating at 56 degrees for 20 -30 min, this process is called Heat inactivation. The complement fixation test is a traditional test that ...
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Western blotting - Introduction, Principle, Procedure & Uses

Western blotting – Introduction, Principle, Procedure & Uses

Introduction to Western Blotting Technique Blotting is a technique for the detection of macromolecules. There are three types of blotting methods:- Southern blotting – used in the detection of DNA Northern blotting – used in the detection of RNA Western blotting – used for the detection of proteins. Western blotting is an analytical technique to study the separated fraction of proteins after electrophoresis. Western blotting is not only used for the detection minute amount of protein but also used for ...
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Immunofluorescence - Principle, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Immunofluorescence – Principle, Types, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

Immunofluorescence is an antigen-antibody reaction where the antibodies are tagged (labeled) with a fluorescent dye and the antigen-antibody complex is visualized using ultra-violet (fluorescent) microscope. Fluorochrome is a dye that absorbs ultra-violet rays and emits visible light. This process is called fluorescence. Commonly used fluorochrome are Acridine Orange, Rhodamine, Lissamine, and Calcofluor white. However, these fluorochromes are used for general fluorescence. When fluorescein (FITC) is excited by a blue (wavelength 488nm) light, it will emit a green (520nm) color. Phycoerythrin ...
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Precipitation Reaction - SEROLOGY TEST

Precipitation Reaction – Mechanism, Types, & Applications

A precipitation reaction is a very important antigen-antibody reaction in which the soluble antigen reacts with its antibody in the presence of electrolytes at a suitable temperature and pH. It leads to the formation of antigen-antibody complexes or immune complex formation are called precipitates. They can either in the form of insoluble precipitate or in form of floccules it remains suspended. Conditions required for precipitation reaction:- The antibody must be bivalent I.e. having two antigen-binding sites. The antigen must be ...
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Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) - SEROLOGY

Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

ELISA is known as  Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay because : The antigen/antibody which adsorbed on the plastic surface is known as sorbent. The antigen recognized by the antibody is known as immuno. And this antibody is recognized by enzyme attached antibody which is known as enzyme-linked. The substrate produces a product which is usually colored on the reaction with the enzyme. It is a plate-based assay technique. It is widely used for the detection of a variety of antigens and antibodies ...
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